Information about the CBD?

The cannabidiol molecule was identified and isolated in the early 1960s. Numerous scientific studies have since made it possible to uncover certain particularities of this cannabis molecule.

Studies have been carried out on the CBD, these are only statistical studies which do not have the value of clinical studies carried out on patients. The benefits attributed to the CBD result from these statistical observations. The recognized benefits of the CBD are of several kinds.

Absence of psychotic effect
First of all, its absence of psychoactivity allows it to be used in a patient without any risk of alteration of functions. It should be remembered that the WHO – the UN body which issues recommendations concerning health – does not classify CBD as a narcotic product.

Physiological actions
CBD has analgesic properties: cannabidiol reduces the transmission of pain to the brain. Taking CBD would make it possible to reduce the inflammatory activity due to chronic pain.

Studies have shown the positive effects of CBD on anxiety. If it is able to reduce stress and anxiety, CBD would be an important ally in the treatment of a wide range of mental illnesses. Or simply a way to improve one’s personal well-being.

Studies are currently being carried out to validate the action of CBD as a neuroprotective agent. The CBD would protect brain and central nervous system cells from damage. This feature would be particularly interesting in the treatment of degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease.

The inhibition of cancer cell proliferation
Scientific analyses have shown that CBD is capable of producing oxidative stress that causes the death of certain types of cancer cells. Oxidative stress has been highlighted as a possible factor in the development of a number of progressive diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and cancer.


What is the CBD?

Cannabidiol, better known by its abbreviated name CBD, is a molecule extracted from cannabis. The hemp plant contains dozens of cannabinoid-type components, the best known of which are CBD and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). CBD is therefore a chemical compound present in cannabis, in the same way as THC, but in greater quantities than the latter.

Extracted from cannabis plants, cannabidiol comes in an oily form, which is then easily incorporated into a liquid solution. The CBD can then be consumed as an essential oil or spray liquid for electronic cigarettes. As an aid to fashion, the name CBD can also be found on the packaging of many products, particularly cosmetics. This marketing use of CBD terminology only indicates that a certain, often small amount of CBD is contained in the finished product.

Unlike THC, CBD has no psychoactive effect on the body. In addition, it does not cause addiction. It cannot therefore be qualified as a drug. It is for these reasons that its use within a legal framework and under certain conditions is authorised.

The democratisation of its use in Europe benefits from a certain legal vagueness which makes it considered as “legal cannabis”. Its therapeutic benefits have been studied for several decades and recognised in a number of medical fields, hence the nickname “therapeutic cannabis”.

CBD is marketed in the form of crystals, flowers or pollen in their most natural configuration. In the form of a processed product, you will find e-liquids and essential oils or solid capsules. As for the cosmetics industry, it will use CBD extracts whose quantity and quality will be difficult to control.

CBD molecule type Cannabinoid
image source: CBD molecule of the Cannabinoid type

What are the side effects of CBD?

Unlike the other known molecule (THC) in cannabis, CBD has no psychotropic effect and is not addictive. This was confirmed in 2017 by the WHO (World Health Organization), a UN body, which does not classify CBD as a narcotic substance. It is for these reasons that it is regarded in a positive way as a possible part of a therapeutic process.

CBD can have drug interactions with a wide range of drugs, from anti-cancer drugs to Voltaren. In particular, CBD can change the way the liver breaks down certain drugs. Before taking CBD, it is therefore prudent to check with your doctor that the action of CBD on these treatments is compatible.

Taking CBD at the same time as therapeutic treatment with a drug whose effect is altered by the liver can potentially increase the effects of this drug as well as its side effects. The usual countermeasure is to lower the dosage of the medication.

On the other hand, CBD has some side effects of its own. These side-effects have been noted in some cases, but are not inevitable. CBD can cause diarrhoea, loss of appetite and a feeling of tiredness or even drowsiness.

Is the CBD legal in France?

Nicknamed “legal cannabis” in France, the CBD benefits from a legal vacuum in the interpretation of texts on the consumption of cannabis products. French law and European law consider a THC concentration rate of less than 0.2% to be legal, without specifying whether this barrier applies to the cultivated plant or to the finished product.

For its part, Mildeca (Interministerial Mission for the Fight against Drugs and Addictive Driving), whose opinion issued in July 2018 is only advisory, specifies that products must not contain any trace of THC. As for the ANSM (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament), it makes no distinction between the different cannabis molecules and classifies them all in the category of narcotic products.

Du coté de la commercialisation, présenter le CBD comme un produit thérapeutique ou un remède, est en France interdit par la loi. Only doctors and pharmacists are authorised to prescribe and market therapeutic products.

Nevertheless, the democratisation of the CBD has taken place in Europe, benefiting from this regulatory vagueness. This vagueness is also maintained by practices that differ from one country to another, making it difficult to trace finished products. The main stumbling block is the THC rate, which has a different maximum authorised threshold at European level: 0.2% in France and Germany, 0.6% in Italy and 1% in Switzerland.

Does CBD reduce pain?

Chronic pain refers to intense pain in a specific area of the body. It can be strong to the point of constituting a disability by limiting the person’s physical mobility. Statistical studies have shown that the use of CBD can reduce the signs of pain in people who previously suffered from chronic pain.

Like all mammals, the human body has an endocannabinoid system. This system – let’s call it SEC – is composed of receptors distributed throughout the body. SEC is useful for the regulation of the immune response and the transmission of pain. Without knowing the exact reasons, it is suspected that the CBD acts on the SEC receptors in such a way as to manipulate the signal used by the human body to perceive pain. This paradox was reflected in a report by Addiction Switzerland (a private and independent foundation), in these terms “a positive doubt about the analgesic effects of CBD to reduce pain”.

Chronic pain
Statistical studies on the subject show that the use of CBD as a treatment to absorb the effects of chronic pain produces notable results. The body of evidence suggests that the use of CBD can reduce inflammation and pain. Moreover, knowing that there is no addiction to CBD, there is no need to increase the doses or to ask the question of withdrawal.

“A joint to cure your migraine” This is more or less what a team of Italian researchers proposed at the last congress of the European Academy of Neurology in June 2019. And the THC-CBD association is producing very exciting results.

Pain caused by arthritis
The most frequently cited study on the subject was carried out on arthritic rats in which relief of joint swelling and inflammation was observed, as well as a reduction in the progression of joint destruction.

However, there are no studies on human patients on the subject. Nonetheless, the presumption beam is favourable.

In what form can cbd be consumed?

CBD is a molecule derived from cannabis. One can consume either the natural product (flower, pollen, crystals) or an industrialised product resulting from extraction. The extraction of CBD from the cannabis leaf produces an oil which is then incorporated into a finished product marketed in the form of an oil bottle or e-liquid. Cosmetics, on the other hand, use oil from the cold pressing of hemp seeds.
From these products, there are different ways of consuming them.

Eating CBD
Whether in cooked form (crystals, oil, seeds) or uncooked form (pill, oil), it is possible to consume CBD by eating it. For the cooked way, it is possible to integrate CBD oil or crystals in any type of food. But it is also possible to eat hemp seeds as part of a meal, just like any other type of seed a vegetarian would use. The most hype is tea at the CBD, to be taken at 5pm with a cookie.

Taking care of your skin with CBD
La pression à froid des graines de chanvre permet de produire une huile contenant du CBD qui est utilisée dans l’industrie cosmétique. Outre les propriétés dues aux particularités de la graine de chanvre (hydratation), le CBD amènerait un plus au niveau de la régénération de la peau notamment dans les cas de brûlure.

What is the purpose of the Endocannabinoid system?

The endo-cannabinoid system (ECS) is a system which was inadvertently discovered in the 1980s, when researchers were investigating the harmful effects of cannabis in order to reduce the credibility of its use. SEC is a system that works with receptors (CB1 and CB2) of which the cannabinoids are the chemical messengers. The system usually works with endogenous cannabinoids.

However, the cannabis study that led to the discovery of SEC showed that it was able to work with exogenous cannabinoids (phyto-cannabinoids, plant-derived cannabinoids), with a more effective and longer-lasting response over time. While endocannabinoids are produced only on demand and are destroyed immediately after use, exogenous cannabinoids have a much longer lifespan.

Thus the THC in cannabis binds to the CB1 receptors of the SEC and activates them as would an endogenous cannabinoid. The effect of THC thus goes beyond the simple “gliding” effect commonly considered as purely psychological and acts in the transmission of a certain amount of information from the SEC.

The CBD, on the other hand, does not bind to the receptors but blocks the THC – CB1 bond to limit the action of THC on the SEC. CBD has little influence on the CB2 receptor, but is an important factor in stimulating the body’s production of endocannabinoids.
The SEC is a system that acts by modulating them on a number of processes, including :

• anxiety,
• the transmission of pain,
• the immune response,
• metabolism.

Keeping these different processes in balance is called homeostasis. Homeostasis is a state of healthy balance of all the processes in a body. And the SEC happens to be the guarantor of this constant state of good functioning.

The knowledge of the endocannabinoid system being relatively recent, there are many elements or effects that are still poorly or not known to us.

What are the benefits of hemp?

By ignorance, hemp is often associated with cannabis alone in the popular imagination. Hemp, at least its seeds and the oil extracted from it, are excellent nutrients. The psychotropic substance of cannabis is mainly found in the leaves of the plant. Hemp seed is free of psychoactive substances.

On the other hand, the hemp seed is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (30% among which we find omega 3 and omega 6), fatty acids essential to the body. This contribution is appreciated for its action regulating the cholesterol level and for its preventive action in the fight against cardiovascular diseases.

Hemp seed is appreciated by vegetarians because it has a high protein content (25%, just behind soy). In addition, like quinoa, it provides the essential amino acids necessary for our diet. The proteins it provides are also better digested than those from other plant sources. A food of complement to be privileged for the vegetarians in search of novelty.

Hemp seed is also rich in soluble and insoluble fibers. Insoluble fibers are interesting in the regulation of intestinal transit. Soluble fibre helps in the proper management of blood glucose levels, making it a good preventive remedy for type 2 diabetes.

Their nutritional richness has prompted the food industry to take an interest in this seed, so much so that today there are various hemp seed-based products on the market, such as cereal bars, cheese substitutes, butter, herbal teas or coffee.

The other component extracted from hemp is the oil extracted from the hemp seed. Rather known for its use in the cosmetic industry, hemp oil is appreciated for its moisturizing, nourishing and regenerating properties. It is a perfect remedy for skin burns, whether it’s to soothe razor burn or the effects of a sunburn. Some oncology units use it to soothe skin subjected to the effects of radiotherapy.

What are the uses of CBD in cosmetics?

In cosmetics, hemp seed oil is used. Unlike CBD oil which is extracted from hemp leaves, the oil used in cosmetics is extracted by cold pressing from hemp seeds. Consumer products derived from hemp seed oil cover a large part of care and wellness products. These range from moisturizers, massage oils, foundations, scrubs and even toothpastes.

The CBD oil used in cosmetics is appreciated for its soothing properties and its high content of omega 3 and omega 6 (richer than argan oil). Like shea butter, CBD oil is rich in essential fatty acids, useful for a good hydration of the skin.
But it is the unique characteristics of CBD that differentiate CBD oil-based cosmetics from others. The dermis is part of the endocannabinoid system. As such, it has many CB2 receivers that can be activated by the CBD. The local application of a CBD-based cosmetic can thus act like a therapeutic treatment, promoting a local response to skin inflammation.

Strangely enough, the packaging of cosmetic lines using hemp seed oil features a hemp leaf, even though it is not used in their manufacture. In cosmetics for men, the emphasis on the cannabis leaf is even more exaggerated, riding the “bad boy” wave. Another oddity, while the existence of the endocannabinoid system has only been known since the 1990s, The Body Shop chain has been offering a range of hemp cosmetic products since 1992.

Does CBD have anti-inflammatory qualities?

History tells us that the applications of cannabis for pain control were known to Chinese medicine several millennia ago. Rediscovered in the 1990s with the update of the endocannabinoid system, the properties of CBD to act against pain and initiate an anti-inflammatory response are still being studied by scientists.

However, it can already be seen that CBD is today a recognized response in the treatment of pain and inflammation. For example, the CBD has been removed from the list of doping substances by the World Anti-Doping Agency, releasing its therapeutic use for elite athletes. While the repeated use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause significant side effects (gastrointestinal effects such as ulcers or heartburn), the effectiveness of CBD as an anti-inflammatory drug is confirmed by scientific and safe studies.

The action of CBD at the level of the endocannabinoid system in order to regulate the perception of pain has today demonstrated both its effectiveness and its harmlessness. The processes are long to analyze and depend on the different cases, but the overall feeling of researchers regarding the use of CBD in an anti-inflammatory perspective is rather optimistic. The studies reporting the most convincing results in the treatment of pain have been observed in patients with cancer or arthritis.

Today there are many products based on CBD. The person suffering from chronic pain will be able to relieve it by using one or more of these products. Whether applied topically with a cream for a quick effect, or in capsule form for a more prolonged effect, CBD will be an effective aid in the treatment of pain.